Independent seeking another

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The Napoleonic invasion of Spain in sparked the Creoles those of European descent born in America in other Spanish colonies to struggle for independence between and But Peru remained loyal because of the conservative attitude of the Peruvian aristocracythe presence of many Spaniards in Peru, the concentration of Spanish military power in Limaand the effective suppression of uprisings by indigenous people.

Among them was Gen. Peruvian independence was declared on July 28, The end of Spanish rule did not, however, provide a solution to the many political, social, and economic problems facing the country. The transition from a colonial dependency to a modern state proved difficult.

The aims of the caudillos were furthered by the absence of a tradition of self-government, by the prevalence of a feudal society of Creoles and indigenous people, and by the reluctance of civilians to assume political responsibility. Despite military influences, a liberal constitution was adopted in This did not prevent Gen. He was succeeded in by another self-seeking caudillo, Gen. Felipe Salaverry. For three years Santa Cruz, though born in La Paz, was backed by influential groups in Peru and maintained the political union.

But his hopes were shattered at the Battle of Yungay in by a t force of nationalist-minded Peruvians and of Chileans fearing a threat to the balance of power in the Pacific.

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During the initial period of statehood in Peru, liberal and conservative parties with ill-defined programs emerged. Their rivalry exacerbated the political instability of the country. Castilla dominated the political scene from to and from toin spite of his mestizo background. His greatest accomplishment for the promotion of national wealth was the exploitation of the guano deposits along the coast and offshore islands. Taxes on this industry, which was controlled by foreign corporations, furnished the principal source of government revenue for several decades. Castilla appealed to liberals by abolishing the payment of tribute by indigenous persons and by emancipating enslaved black persons.

Landowners on the coastal plantations, however, were permitted to import thousands of Chinese workers in order to have a sufficient labour supply.

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As an additional concession to the liberals, Castilla established a system of state education at the primary and secondary levels. Through his influence, an assembly in adopted a constitution that lasted into the s. In Spain dispatched a naval force to the Pacific, ostensibly to protect the rights of Basque immigrants but in reality to attempt to reestablish domination over its former colony.

Dissatisfaction with military rule resulted in in the formation of the Civilian Party, representing an oligarchy of landowners and merchants see Civilista.

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This party, headed by Manuel Pardo president, —76approved a costly program of internal development, which included the construction of railro across the Andes. Corruption on the part of government officials and contractors characterized the work, which decreased the isolation of the Peruvian interior but increased enormously the national debt.

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Additional Info. Load. Achievement of independence The Napoleonic invasion of Spain in sparked the Creoles those of European descent born in America in other Spanish colonies to struggle for independence between and Robert N. Burr Thomas M. Davies James S. Kus Peru from to The end of Spanish rule did not, however, provide a solution to the many political, social, and economic problems facing the country. Establishment of order During the initial period of statehood in Peru, liberal and conservative parties with ill-defined programs emerged.

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Independent seeking another

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Achievement of independence